Right after institution for the Continental Army, June 14, 1775, Maj. Gen. Horatio Gates reported to Commander-in-Chief George Washington that “the unwell suffered much for aim of good feminine Nurses.” Washington after that requested Congress for “a matron to supervise the nurses, bedding, etc., ” as well as for nurses “to attend the ill and follow the matron’s requests.”
In July 1775, a strategy was submitted toward 2nd Continental Congress that supplied one nursing assistant for each and every 10 patients and provided “that a matron be allocated to each and every 100 sick or wounded.”
The Civil War (1861-1865) and After
A lot of women served as nurses when you look at the hospitals of both Union and Confederate armies, in addition usually carrying out their particular humanitarian solution near to the combat front side or in the battlefields by themselves – making the undying value and appreciation from those who they served.
On June 10, 1861, two months after the Civil War started, the assistant of war appointed Dorothea Lynde Dix as superintendent of females Nurses the Union Army.
About 6, 000 ladies performed nursing duties the national causes. It's estimated that some 181 black colored nurses served in convalescent and U.S. government hospitals during the war.
Spanish-American War (1898) and beyond
On April 28, 1898, at the start of the Spanish-American War, the surgeon general requested and quickly obtained congressional authority to appoint women nurses under contract.
Dr. Anita Newcomb McGee, vice president associated with the National community for the Daughters associated with United states Revolution, was put in fee of selecting graduate members for the Army. Military nursing was indeed practically dormant since the Civil War. This profession needed a higher level of competence and armed forces nurses became referred to as “contract nurses” of Army. Between 1898 and 1901, over l, 500 women nurses signed government contracts.
Contract nurses served in the us, Puerto Rico, the Philippine Islands, Hawaii, China, briefly in Japan as well as on a medical facility ship Relief. Fifteen of those nurses died of typhoid temperature and one of yellow-fever.
The “Splendid Little War, ” as Secretary of State John Hay once called it, exposed different shortcomings for the military structure, which often made many years following the turn associated with century ready for reform. Underneath the assistance of Secretary of War Elihu Root, a unique main of staff system was made, and several other projects. During this time period, mainly because associated with excellent performance of Army agreement nurses during Spanish-American War, the U.S. military realized that it will be beneficial to have a corps of qualified nurses, familiar with military ways, on telephone call.
The Nurse Corps became a permanent corps associated with health Department beneath the Army Reorganization Act (31 Stat. 753) passed away by Congress, Feb. 2, 1901. Nurses were appointed to the regular Army for a 3-year period, although nurses weren't actually commissioned as officers in the regular Army through that time frame. The visit could possibly be restored supplied the applicant had a “satisfactory record for efficiency, conduct and health.”
The law directed the physician general to keep a listing of competent nurses who have been ready to offer in a crisis. Therefore, supply was built to appoint a certain few nurses with at the least 6 months of satisfactory solution when you look at the Army on a reserve standing. This was initial Reserve Corps authorized when you look at the Army Medical division, together with first ever book corps of females.
Dita H.Kinney, a former contract nursing assistant, ended up being formally appointed the very first Superintendent regarding the Army Nurse Corps, or ANC, March 25, 1901, a posture she held until she resigned in July 1909.
World War II (1942-1945)
America entered World War I, April 6, 1917. There have been 403 nurses on active responsibility, including 170 book nurses who was simply bought to duty at 12 Army hospitals in Texas, Arizona, and brand new Mexico.
By 1918, significantly more than 12, 000 nurses were on active responsibility serving at 198 channels worldwide. In-may 1917, six base (general) hospitals with over 400 nurses sailed for France for service into the British Expeditionary Forces.
Gen. John J. Pershing sent a cabled request “for a reliable person in the Nurse Corps” to supervise nursing tasks in American Expeditionary Forces, Oct. 2, 1917. Bessie S. Bell, after that main nursing assistant of Walter Reed General Hospital, reported to service, Nov. 13, 1917.
The Army class of Nursing had been authorized because of the assistant of war instead of utilizing nurses’ aides in Army hospitals, might 25, 1918. Courses of instruction opened at a few Army hospitals during July 1918. Annie W. Goodrich had been appointed under contract as primary inspector nurse for Army; she became initial dean of Army class of Nursing.
Army nurses during World War I did not have officer condition. They were maybe not commissioned, but appointed in to the ANC. Medics often declined to simply accept nurses’ expert on wards. Following the war, Congress, to show their appreciation, offered nurses officer standing by allotting all of them “relative rank, ” meaning that an Army nurse first lieutenant, as an example, got less pay and status than a male very first lieutenant.
As a sign of their particular valiant contribution during the Great War, Army nurses had been awarded numerous medals – such as the Distinguished provider Cross (a honor rated second and then the Medal of Honor).
Several nurses obtained wartime injuries, but not one passed away as a result of enemy activity. More or less 200 did perish from influenza and pneumonia.
Army nurses played a vital part when you look at the global influenza epidemic of 1918. It had been (and stays) the single most dangerous epidemic in modern times. Around 18 million men and women world wide lost their particular life as a consequence of having developed the flu. Men and women residing and dealing in crowded Army articles, port cities, and towns were most vunerable to this extremely contagious disease. Above 200 Army nurses destroyed their particular lives simply because they contracted influenza while nursing their clients regarding the wards.
World War II (1942-1945)
There have been less than 7, 000 Army nurses on active duty when the usa entered World War II. On the next six months, their number grew to above 12, 000.
Army nurses, like their male Soldier alternatives, had been prisoners of war associated with Japanese, sustained casualties from adversary fire at Anzio beachhead and elsewhere, were killed in routes and invested time behind enemy lines and in concentration camps.